Traditional and Modern Use of Lesser Celandine

Lesser Celandine (Ficaria verna) belongs to the buttercup family. The bright yellow flowers appear briefly in early spring. The plant has a long history as a wild edible with its large fleshy roots and green shoots that appear as one of the first signs of spring.

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Common Name

Lesser celandine.

Scientific Name

Ficaria verna syn. Ranunculus ficaria.

Family

Ranunculaceae.

Botanical Description

The stem and leaves are brightly coloured green, younger leaves are heart-shaped and become ivy-like in appearance with darker markings. The shiny flowers are composed of nine to twelve golden-yellow petals with a green underside. The fruit appear like grains of corn, being globular and whitish.

Status

Perennial. Native to Europe, western Asia and north Africa.

Habitat and Distribution

Distributed across Europe, western Asia and north Africa, found in fields, hillsides, riverbanks and woodlands.

Parts Used For Food

Young leaves. Roots.

Harvest Time

Early spring.

Food Uses

The plant’s roots swell up to form bulbs or tubers, which are reputedly delicious and can be eaten as a starchy vegetable.1 Lesser celandine has been used as potherb in central Europe2 and the young parts of the plant have been added to salads.3

Nutritional Profile

Lesser celandine may contain antioxidants that make it worthy as a springtime tonic, although further research into its biological activities is needed.4

Traditional Medicine Uses

Lesser celandine was a traditionally remedy for piles; its common name of figwort alludes to ‘fig’ as an old name for piles.5 An ointment of the roots was also said to cure corns and worts.6

Other Uses

An unusual use for the petals and leaves recorded in Cumbria, England, was for cleaning teeth.7

Cautions

As a member of the buttercup family, lesser celandine may cause contact dermatitis in humans and animals.8 The plant sap may also cause nausea and vomiting if taken internally; the plant’s safety during pregnancy or when breastfeeding is not established and therefore best avoided.9


References

  1. Klooss, S et al, Charred root tubers of lesser celandine (Ficaria verna HUDS.) in plant macro remain assemblages from Northern, Central and Western Europe. Quaternary International, 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2015.10.014.
  2. Turner, NJ et al. Edible and Tended Wild Plants, Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Agroecology. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 2011. DOI: 1080/07352689.2011.554492.
  3. Flora of the U.S.S.R. Volume VII. Editor: Komarov, VL. Published for the Smithsonian Institute and the National Science Foundation, Washington, DC, by the Israel Program for Scientific Translations.
  4. Barla, GF et al. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content in Allium ursinum and Ranunculus ficaria. Journal of Faculty of Food Engineering. 2014.
  5. Grieve, M. A Modern Herbal. Tiger Books International. London. 1996. ISBN: 1-85501-249-9.
  6. Hatfield, G. Hatfield’s Herbal. Allen Lane, Penguin Books. London. 2007. ISBN: 978-140-51577-0.
  7. Allen, DE, Hatfield, G. Medicinal Plants in Folk Tradition. An ethnobotany of Britain & Ireland. Timber Press. Portland, Oregon. 2004. ISBN: 9780881926385.
  8. Jackson, PW. Ireland’s Generous Nature. The Past and Present Uses of Wild Plants in Ireland. Missouri Botanical Garden Press. St Louis, missouri. 2014. ISBN: 978-0-915279-78-4.
  9. Karalliedde, Dr L. Gawarammana, Dr I. Traditional Herbal Medicines. A guide to their safer use. Hammersmith Press Ltd. London. 2007. ISBN: 978-1-905140-04-6.
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12 thoughts on “Traditional and Modern Use of Lesser Celandine”

  1. This little plant is so pretty and delicate, but obviously very punchy!! I shall keep my eye out for this little marvel. Information is fascinating, thank you.

  2. I have this plant growing in my garden, its my favourite flower, it grows on my rockery. I often see it in the woods near me too, its lovely to see it in the dimness of the shaded woods ,it brings a welcome glow of colour, and I often stop and just look at it in wonder as its so beautiful.

  3. This lovely plant was my Fathers favourite. It grows around my old a Apple tree with the Violets & Primroses that are now in flower too. I am interested in testing this plant as I know the use for Greater Celandine regarding wart removal etc. Thank You

  4. Great write up Robin!!

    I am experimenting with planting Lesser Celandine in Forest Gardens, with other ground cover vegetables that surface later – like Oca (Oxalis Tuberosum) for example.

    This extends the ground cover period from January when the Celandine first surfaces, to December when the Oca is harvested, both providing edible leaves and roots – nibbles for the whole year!

  5. We have lesser celandine growing in our garden. I love the idea that when it flowers it is the right time to sow seed. I will look out for the flowers this spring!

  6. Very Interesting. the area i live in we have a abundance of lesser celandine, we have just had a cold wet year, but celandines are at there best, large starry flowers with glossy mottled green leaf. they have always been a joy.

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